Korean J Fam Med 2016; 37(2): 111-116  https://doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.2016.37.2.111
The Relationship of Caffeine Intake with Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Sleep in Korean Adolescents
Mi-Joo Jin1, Chang-Ho Yoon1,*, Hae-Jin Ko1, Hyo-Min Kim1, A-Sol Kim1, Ha-Na Moon1, Seung-Pil Jung2
1Department of Family Medicine, Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Daegu, Korea
2Department of Family Medicine, Yeungnam University College of Medicine, Daegu, Korea
Chang-Ho Yoon Tel: +82-53-200-5791, Fax: +82-53-200-5480, E-mail: ychfm@knu.ac.kr
Received: February 28, 2015; Revised: September 21, 2015; Accepted: September 24, 2015; Published online: March 20, 2016.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

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Background: In various studies in adults, caffeine may increase wakefulness and relieve pain, but caffeine overdose can cause many adverse serious effects on health. Caffeine intake has recently been increasing in adolescents. In spite of importance of caffeine effects on Korean adolescents, there are lack of scientific and systematic studies. The purpose of our study was to identify the relationship between caffeine consumption and effects on adolescents.

Methods: We performed study on 234 middle school students at one middle school in Daegu using a self-report questionnaire. We divided students to quartiles according to amount of caffeine intake. We used Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) to evaluate the degree of depression and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) to evaluate the degree of anxiety. We also used Insomnia Severity Scale (ISI) to evaluate the degree of insomnia and Global Assessment of Recent Stress (GARS) to evaluate the stress in students. We used logistic regression analysis to identify the relationship between caffeine consumption and effects.

Results: Higher caffeine intake was associated with higher weight, height, lower academic achievement, and higher score in BDI, BAI, ISI, and GARS (P for trend <0.005). Higher caffeine intake quartile was associated with greater odds of having significant depression (BDI ≥10, P for trend=0.011), and insomnia (ISI ≥8, P for trend=0.015) after adjustment for factors that can affect the psychological status.

Conclusion: We found that caffeine intake is associated weight, height, academic achievement, and higher score in BDI, BAI, ISI, and GARS. Caffeine intake was positively associated with the severity of depression and the severity of insomnia among adolescents in Korean.

Keywords: Adolescent; Caffeine Intake; Depression; Insomnia

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