Korean J Fam Med 2017; 38(4): 199-205  https://doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.2017.38.4.199
The Association between Urinary Sodium Excretion and Metabolic Syndrome in Korean Adults from the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jeong Eun Seo1, Hong Soo Lee1, Sang Wha Lee1, Kyung Won Shim1, A Ri Byun1, Jung Hwa Kim1, Hee Jeong An1, Hyejin Chun2,*
1Department of Family Medicine, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Family Medicine, Bundang CHA Medical Center, CHA University, Seongnam, Korea
Hyejin Chun Tel: +82-31-780-5050, Fax: +82-31-780-6277, E-mail: fmewha@naver.com
Received: March 10, 2016; Revised: July 30, 2016; Accepted: August 2, 2016; Published online: July 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

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Abstract
Background: The sodium intake of Koreans was higher than that recommended by the World Health Organization. Urinary sodium, which is correlated with sodium intake, can be easily calculated by the Tanaka’s equation. This study aimed to evaluate the association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults using the 2010–2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES).
Methods: A total of 5,870 participants from the 2010–2011 KNHANES were included in this study. Twenty-four hour urinary sodium was calculated by the Tanaka’s equation using spot urine. Participants were divided into tertiles based on urinary sodium levels. The association between urinary sodium and metabolic syndrome was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
Results: The odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome for the 2nd and 3rd tertile of urinary sodium levels was 1.51 (1.16–1.97) and 1.56 (1.23–1.97) compared to the lowest tertile of urinary sodium in men. The ORs and 95% CIs of metabolic syndrome in women were 1.20 (0.95–1.51) for the 2nd tertile and 2.16 (1.68–2.78) for the 3rd tertile. These associations remained statistically significant, even after adjusting for multiple covariates such as age, education, regular exercise, smoking, and alcohol consumption.
Conclusion: These findings indicate that urinary sodium is significantly associated with metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.
Keywords: Urine; Sodium; Metabolic Syndrome; Korea


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