Korean J Fam Med 2017; 38(5): 270-275  https://doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.2017.38.5.270
Seasonal Variations and Correlations between Vitamin D and Total Testosterone Levels
Moo-Yeol Sim, Soo-Hyun Kim, Kwang-Min Kim*
Department of Family Medicine, Ajou University Hospital, Suwon, Korea
Kwang-Min Kim Tel: +82-31-219-5306, Fax: +82-31-219-5306, E-mail: gaksi@ajou.ac.kr
Received: March 29, 2016; Revised: October 25, 2016; Accepted: October 27, 2016; Published online: September 20, 2017.
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Background: Some studies have provided evidence for a possible association between vitamin D and testosterone levels; however, the evidence from studies in Koreans is inconsistent. In addition, insufficient evidence is available to support an association between seasonal variations in vitamin D and testosterone levels in Koreans. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D and testosterone levels, and between seasonal variations in these levels in Korean men.
Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,559 men, aged 25–86 years, who underwent a medical examination. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and total testosterone levels, and compared other laboratory test results and patient lifestyle characteristics. On the basis of sample collection time, we categorized patients into four seasons, and analyzed seasonal variability in 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels.
Results: The average participant age (±standard deviation) was 53.3±8.8 years, and the average serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels were 15.9±7.0 ng/mL and 5.1±1.6 ng/mL, respectively. In the analysis of variance (ANOVA) model, no significant association was found between 25(OH)D and testosterone levels (P=0.51). ANOVA of the average 25(OH)D levels in season-based groups revealed significant seasonal variations in 25(OH)D levels (P-value for trend <0.001). No significant association was found between seasonal variations in total testosterone levels (P=0.06). However, after adjustment for confounding variables, total testosterone and 25(OH)D showed significant seasonal variability (P=0.007 and P<0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: We found no significant correlation between serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels in Korean men. Moreover, serum 25(OH)D and total testosterone levels showed significant seasonal variations.
Keywords: Vitamin D; Testosterone; Seasonal Variation; Korean Men

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