Korean J Fam Med 2017; 38(6): 372-379  https://doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.2017.38.6.372
Association between Sarcopenia and Dipstick Proteinuria in the Elderly Population: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys 2009–2011
Duna Hwang1, Mi-Ryung Cho1, Minyong Choi1, Sang Hyun Lee2, Youngmin Park2,*
1Department of Family Medicine, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Family Medicine, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea
Youngmin Park Tel: +82-31-900-0438, Fax: +82-31-900-0343, E-mail: steelmess@naver.com
Received: June 9, 2016; Revised: September 11, 2016; Accepted: September 22, 2016; Published online: November 20, 2017.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0) which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: Sarcopenia and proteinuria are significant health difficulties in the elderly; however, few studies have investigated their relationship. In this study, we investigated the association between sarcopenia and proteinuria in Korean subjects over 60 years old.
Methods: We included data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a cross-sectional, nationally representative survey conducted from 2009 to 2011 (n=4,008). Sarcopenia was defined using appendicular skeletal muscle mass as a percentage of body weight. Proteinuria was defined by a urine dipstick test result above trace levels.
Results: The overall proteinuria prevalence was 7.2%. The incidence of sarcopenia was significantly higher in subjects with proteinuria. The prevalence of proteinuria was significantly higher in the sarcopenic group (5.5% vs. 14.5% in the non-chronic kidney disease (CKD) group; 17.2% vs. 23.2% in the CKD group) than in the non-sarcopenic group. Furthermore, sarcopenic participants had worse metabolic parameters, such as higher body mass indexes, waist circumferences, and fasting glucose levels, and lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than those in the non-CKD group. After adjustment for confounders, the odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for proteinuria were 2.84 (1.92–4.18) in the sarcopenic non-CKD group, 3.70 (2.59–5.30) in the non-sarcopenic CKD group, and 5.19 (2.64–10.18) in the sarcopenic CKD group, compared to the non-sarcopenic, non-CKD group. Sarcopenia increased the proteinuria risk in elderly participants without CKD, even after adjustment for obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and metabolic syndrome.
Conclusion: These findings showed that sarcopenia was associated with dipstick proteinuria, especially in elderly participants without CKD, regardless of comorbidities.
Keywords: Sarcopenia; Proteinuria; Chronic Renal Insufficiency

This Article