Korean J Fam Med 2018; 39(2): 90-95  https://doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.2018.39.2.90
The Association between Smoking Status and Influenza Vaccination Coverage Rate in Korean Adults: Analysis of the 2010–2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey
Jung Keun Park1, Soo Lee1, Ji Eun Lee1, Kyung-Do Han2, Ji Hyun Kim1, Jin Hee Yoon1, Suk Won Park1, Yang-Hyun Kim1,*, Kyung-Hwan Cho1,*
1Department of Family Medicine, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
2Department of Medical Statistics, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul, Korea
Kyung-Hwan Cho https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2521-3064
Tel: +82-2-920-5025, Fax: +82-2-928-8083, E-mail: chokh@korea.ac.kr
Yang-Hyun Kim https://orcid.org/0000-0003-3548-8758
Tel: +82-2-920-5104, Fax: +82-2-928-8083, E-mail: mrchir@naver.com
*These two authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: July 4, 2016; Revised: October 15, 2016; Accepted: October 25, 2016; Published online: March 20, 2018.
© Korean Academy of Family Medicine. All rights reserved.

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Abstract
Background: Globally, smoking is one of the biggest challenges in public health and is a known cause of several important diseases. Influenza is preventable via annual vaccination, which is the most effective and cost-beneficial method of prevention. However, subjects who smoke have some unhealthy behaviours such as alcohol, low physical activity, and low vaccination rate. In this study, we analyzed the relationship between smoking status and factors potentially related to the influenza vaccination coverage rate in the South Korean adult population.
Methods: The study included 13,565 participants aged >19 years, from 2010 to 2012 from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. Univariate analyses were conducted to examine the association between influenza coverage rate and related factors. Multivariate analysis was obtained after adjusting for variables that were statistically significant.
Results: The overall vaccination rate was 27.3% (n=3,703). Older individuals (P<0.0001), women (P<0.0001), non-smokers (P<0.0001), light alcohol drinkers (P<0.0001), the unemployed (P<0.0001), and subjects with diabetes mellitus (P<0.0001), hypercholesterolemia (P<0.0001), and metabolic syndrome (P<0.0001) had higher influenza vaccination coverage than the others. In multivariate analyses, current smokers and heavy smokers showed lower vaccination rates (odds ratio, 0.734; 95% confidence interval, 0.63–0.854).
Conclusion: In the current study, smokers and individuals with inadequate health-promoting behaviors had lower vaccination rates than the others did.
Keywords: Human Influenza; Vaccination; Smoking; Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey


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