A Validation Study of the Brief Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT): A Brief Screening Tool Derived from the AUDIT
Kyungseop So, Eunju Sung1,*
Total Healthcare Center, 1Department of Family Medicine, Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
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Background: The prevalence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) is very high in Korea. To identify AUD in the busy practice setting, brevity of screening tools is very important. We derived the brief Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and evaluated its performance as a brief screening test.
Methods: One hundred male drinkers from Kangbuk Samsung Hospital primary care outpatient clinic and psychiatric ward for alcoholism treatment completed questionnaires including the AUDIT, cut down, annoyed, guilty, eye-opener (CAGE), and National Alcoholism Screening Test (NAST) from April to July, 2007. AUD (alcohol abuse and dependence), defined by a physician in accordance with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, was used as a diagnostic criteria. To derive the brief AUDIT, factor analysis was performed using the principal component extraction method with a varimax rotated solution. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to investigate the discrimination ability of the brief AUDIT. Areas under the ROC curve were compared performance of screening questionnaires with 95% confidence intervals.
Results: The derived brief AUDIT consists of 4 items: frequency of heavy drinking (item 3), impaired control over drinking (item 4), increased salience of drinking (item 5), and alcohol-related injury (item 9). Brief AUDIT exhibited an AUD screening accuracy better than CAGE, and equally to that of NAST. Areas under the ROC curves were 0.87 (0.80–0.94), 0.76 (0.66–0.85), and 0.81 (0.73–0.90) for the brief AUDIT, CAGE, and NAST for AUD, and 0.97 (0.95–0.99), 0.93 (0.88–0.98) and 0.93 (0.88–0.98) for alcohol dependence.
Conclusion: The new brief AUDIT seems to be effective in detecting male AUD in the primary care setting in Korea. Further evaluation for women and different age groups is needed.