Inter-arm Differences in Simultaneous Blood Pressure Measurements in Ambulatory Patients without Cardiovascular Diseases
Kyoung Bog Kim, Mi Kyeong Oh*, Haa Gyoung Kim, Ji Hoon Ki, Soo Hee Lee, Su Min Kim
Department of Family Medicine, Gangneung Asan Hospital, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Gangneung, Korea
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Background: It has traditionally been known that there is normally a difference in blood pressure (BP) between the two arms; there is at least 20 mm Hg difference in the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and 10 mm Hg difference in the diastolic blood pressure (DBP). However, recent epidemiologic studies have shown that there are between-arm differences of < 5 mm Hg in simultaneous BP measurements. The purposes of this study is to examine whether there are between-arm differences in simultaneous BP measurements obtained from ambulatory patients without cardiovascular diseases and to identify the factors associated these differences.
Methods: We examined 464 patients who visited the outpatient clinic of Gangneung Asan Hospital clinical department. For the current analysis, we excluded patients with ischemic heart disease, stroke, arrhythmia, congestive heart failure, or hyperthyroidism. Simultaneous BP measurements were obtained using the Omron MX3 BP monitor in both arms. The inter-arm difference (IAD) in BP was expressed as the relative difference (right-arm BP [R] minus left-arm BP [L]: R - L) and the absolute difference (|R - L|).
Results: The mean absolute IAD in SBP and DBP were 3.19 ¡¾ 2.38 and 2.41 ¡¾ 1.59 mm Hg, respectively, in men and 2.61 ¡¾ 2.18 and 2.25 ¡¾ 2.01 mm Hg, respectively, in women. In men, there were 83.8% of patients with the IAD in SBP of ¡Â 6 mm Hg, 98.1% with the IAD in SBP of ¡Â 10 mm Hg, 96.5% with the IAD in DBP of ¡Â 6 mm Hg and 0% with the IAD in DBP of > 10 mm Hg. In women, 89.6% of patients had IAD in SBP of ¡Â 6 mm Hg, 92.1% with IAD in DBP of ¡Â 6 mm Hg, and 0% with IAD in SBP of > 10 mm Hg or IAD in DBP of > 10 mm Hg. Gangneung Asan Hospital clinical series of patients showed that the absolute IAD in SBP had a significant correlation with cardiovascular risk factors such as the 10-year Framingham cardiac
risk scores and higher BP in men and higher BP in women. However, the absolute IAD in SBP and DBP had no significant correlation with the age, obesity, smoking, drinking, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and renal function.
Conclusion: Our results showed that there were no significant between-arm differences in simultaneous BP measurements. It was also shown that most of the ambulatory patients without cardiovascular diseases had an IAD in SBP of < 10 mm Hg and an IAD in DBP of < 6 mm Hg.