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Korean J Fam Med > Volume 42(6); 2021 > Article
Korean Journal of Family Medicine 2021;42(6):438-444.
DOI: https://doi.org/10.4082/kjfm.20.0118    Published online November 20, 2021.
The Impact of Preventive Interventions on Intimate Partner Violence among Pregnant Women Resident in Hamadan City Slum Areas Using the PEN-3 Model: Control Randomized Trial Study
Khadije Ezzati Rastegar1  , Babak Moeini1,2  , Forouzan Rezapur-Shahkolai1,3  , Asadollah Naghdi4  , Manoochehr Karami5  , Shayesteh Jahanfar6 
1Department of Public Health, School of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
2Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
3Research Center for Health Sciences, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
4Department of Social Sciences, Buali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
5Modeling of Non-communicable Diseases Research Center, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran
6Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Tufts School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA
Corresponding author:  Shayesteh Jahanfar, Tel: +1-617-636-2959, Fax: +1-617-636-4017, 
Email: shayesteh.jahanfar@tufts.edu
Received: 19 May 2020   • Revised: 24 June 2020   • Accepted: 25 June 2020
Abstract
Background
Intimate partner violence is a severe life-threatening criminal and public health problem affecting the well-being of individuals, families, and society. Planning interventions to reduce the burden of this persistent and criminal violence should be relevant culturally and socially.
Methods
In this randomized control trial, 150 pregnant women residing in slum areas of Hamadan were randomly assigned to two groups (intervention group: n=50 and control group: n=100). Interventional strategies included educating the victims based on local cultural norms, culturally sensitive individual and group counseling, and educating health care providers. Data were collected via face-to-face interviews at baseline and again at 3 months after the intervention. We used a paired t-test to evaluate the effect of the intervention by comparing changes in the outcomes measured.
Results
There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups at baseline in terms of sociodemographic characteristics. Post-test scores of knowledge (7.50±2.65 vs. 5.14±3.51, P=0.001), communication skills (18.38±4.25 vs. 16.2±3.83, P=0.04), and family support and social expectation of obedience (15.79±4.45 vs. 13.40±4.57, P=0.005) of the victims were statistically significantly higher in the experimental group compared to the control group. Moreover, physical (0.74±2.28 vs. 1.20±2.60, P=0.06), psychological (2.80±4.10 vs. 4.52±5.43, P=0.06), and sexual (0.11±0.58 vs. 0.61±1.22, P=0.04) violence reduced in the experimental group compared to the control group.
Conclusion
Culturally relevant interventions can reduce intimate partner violence.
Key Words: Intimate Partner Violence; Pregnant Women; Slums
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